The hottest manufacturing enterprises compress cos

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Manufacturing enterprises compress cost centers through informatization. As manufacturers, you know that production waste products will appear in almost every link. They may be that you ordered some parts from the sub assembly supplier and found that they were not suitable for your finished components after arrival; Or, a physical prototype that you discard after using. Sometimes, scrap refers to the delivered finished products that your customers don't like at all; Or, in the worst case, waste products are inferior products that lead to embarrassing and costly recycling

in each case, scrap and rework required to solve the problem will cost you money or time, or both. Industry analysts pointed out that since raw materials and human labor are the two largest cost centers for most manufacturers, all production waste will have an adverse impact on these two aspects

problem: there are many ways to produce waste products, such as wrong materials, incorrect tolerances and imperfect ergonomic design. Here are some more serious ways:

redundant prototypes - physical prototypes must be used when developing products, but the less prototypes are needed, the better. PTC has a customer who is a manufacturer of racing engines. By reducing the number of physical prototypes used for testing, it has successfully shortened the development time by several weeks

inappropriate parts - since the product design team is now scattered around the world, those design or manufacturing changes that inevitably occur at the last minute have become more risky: a subcontractor may not have received the latest documents or emails, and may eventually produce invalid parts

material change - if a subcontractor cannot deliver the raw material you want, they often recommend another raw material. It is not uncommon for new information to be lost during the handover between your purchasing office and the manufacturing team

the impact of these and countless other errors may be devastating for small and medium-sized enterprises. Take a look at the website of the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, from which you can learn about the degree of product recall in the United States. The first call listed on Wikipedia has completely changed the characteristics of the SCR continuously variable transmission system that the transmission power decreases exponentially at low speed because it uses the pulse width speed regulation system to make it have high transmission torque at low speed. One of the events occurred on Cadillac cars from 1959 to 1960, involving a manufacturing defect. Wikipedia cites a 1990 book, "the struggle for car safety", written by Mashaw and harfst, A paragraph on page 150: "... When making a 90 degree turn at a speed of 10 to 15 mph (24 km/h), the steering linkage (steering arm) on many vehicles fails... The metal material used in the steering arm is softer than the material usually used to resist the low-speed turning stress; and... Compared with previous years, General Motors has sold six times as many steering arm replacement devices in these years."

solution - divided into four steps

as waste reduction and rework touch all aspects of design and manufacturing, this work must be defined and designed as a company wide initiative

first, we should strive to achieve a fully digital product representation, and then develop it to include virtual prototype design and functional simulation, tolerance analysis and dimensional testing, as well as information distribution workflow running throughout the enterprise

for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMBs), this goal may sound like a strategy that is still in progress. The opportunity period is unattainable and the cost is huge. But in fact, this is not necessarily the case, because of the continuous progress in the integration of design and manufacturing, and now there are ready-made PLM (product lifecycle management) systems for small and medium-sized enterprises. Many SMBs are now implementing the following steps to reduce scrap and rework in their organizations

step 1: fully digital product representation

fully digital product representation means that all digital data input and/or generated in the product life cycle is accompanied by the product at each development stage (from the initial concept to the final scrap of the product). In this way, the same batch of data used for CAD models can be used for simulation and analysis, as well as for manufacturing products and storage in PLM electronic warehouse

the end-to-end integration can be realized by using the full digital representation. Therefore, each production base in the product development process is the world's largest supplier of large tow carbon fiber, and the operation of other steps can be learned at one step. For example, in a fully digital environment, any and all changes in CAD software will automatically update cam files, while any changes in CAD or cam applications will update data in PLM data warehouse. With the intelligent PLM solution, this interaction will not cause too much pressure on the PLM architecture. The reason is that although these functions seem to make each file have multiple copies, in fact, they only create, update, share and store a central file at any time. Multiple views seen by different users are caused by repository pointers or unrelated replications, rather than redundant data; Moreover, all changes and updates to the central file are managed by the locking mechanism and the recovery mechanism

Step 2: virtual prototype design and function simulation

nowadays, there are many moving parts in product and component design, so they need laborious installation and operation detection. In order to ensure quality and performance, physical prototypes are needed, but they may also cause waste, because prototypes will become waste once used up. Reducing or eliminating prototypes is the ultimate goal of every manufacturer

the fully digital product representation allows you to replace some physical prototypes with virtual prototypes. Full digitalization also means that 3D models can be "shrink wrapped" into smaller, more manageable sizes using 3D CAD software, and then sent by email to remote members of the design or manufacturing team (depending on your 3D CAD software), saving a lot of time and cost. Shrink wrap removes unnecessary data from the model, so you can share only data related to specific roles or functions in the development enterprise. For example, a car seat manufacturer wants to use your body as a virtual prototype, but may not care about the components of the engine or transmission. With "shrink wrap", you only send the data it needs to this manufacturer, while protecting your important intellectual assets, such as engine designs that you don't want to share with body manufacturers

using PTC's pro/engineer tolerance analysis extension, a rapid tolerance accumulation check can be performed in advance for important dimensions

Step 3: dimensional analysis and tolerance analysis

dimensional deviation has always been a key parameter in product design. Deviations between parts can arise from many situations. For example, during the manufacturing process, CNC drill bits may be sharper at 8 a.m. than at noon; Or, the purity of the coolant may change at any time. In addition, extreme temperatures may cause shrinkage or expansion in the environment of the end user

setting tolerances is challenging because of the need to ensure cost competitiveness. Tight tolerances can be very helpful for product quality or "feel". However, if the density of tolerance is too tight, it may prove too expensive from the point of view of the time and additional processing required. Ideal tolerance is a problem of finding the best compromise between product quality and economy, and it is a key consideration from the perspective of minimizing production waste and rework. Accurate tolerance analysis is essential, and it is very important that the tolerance value assigned by the designer to the model will be retained with the model as the product goes through the whole development process

step 4: end to end information distribution

Engineering, manufacturing, procurement, service, sales and marketing departments, plus suppliers, customers and design partners, should be able to share product development information and add their own value when appropriate. It is best to use information workflow to realize information sharing. This workflow automatically moves operation requests, queries, approvals and other operations among the people who are most closely related to the product development process

this workflow should include warnings, alerts, and escalation paths to ensure that reviews or other requests are not ignored. Moreover, this workflow should be integrated with relevant product development processes (such as product validation and change management), which will provide important information to the product development knowledge base

supplier's point of view: PTC's CAD and PLM solutions

for thousands of small and medium-sized enterprises, PTC's pro/engineer 3D CAD software is the starting point of a fully digital product representation. Pro/engineer supports industry standard 2D and 3D file formats, so it can serve as the core of an end-to-end integrated digital architecture. Moreover, it supports many simulation and analysis modules, so you don't have to switch between different applications for testing, and you don't have to worry about losing track of important data

The Windchill PLM architecture of PTC adds the necessary information distribution workflow, so that all relevant business applications can obtain the latest product development data and manufacturing bill of materials (BOM) information. Moreover, the PLM function provided by PTC on demand enables small enterprises to take advantage of Windchill without investing a lot of money in advance

there are many medium-sized companies that use PLM provided on demand to reduce rework. Eton SRF in the UK is an example. This manufacturer manufactures cooling systems for industry, automobile and agriculture. Previously, Eton's design team in the UK used Ftp links to exchange product design documents with the company's manufacturing plant in Turkey

when the Turkish Manufacturing Engineer changed the product design, he did not record the changes, because there was no corresponding workflow to update the British designer's files. Therefore, multiple versions of product and component designs are disseminated within the company, which leads to frequent rework of designed and manufactured components. In cooperation with PTC's distributors, Eton introduced Windchill pdmlink on demand with change management functions for five users. Within one week, all important product data are controlled by the data electronic warehouse; In the first month, rework was reduced by 75%, while the cost of round-trip travel between Turkey and the UK was reduced by 90%

from manual to automatic

not long ago, these problems (virtual prototyping, large-scale information distribution, production waste and rework) were not very critical for enterprises. Just ten years ago, the product was relatively simple, and the implementation speed of the product development process was a little slow, so that employees had more time to eliminate design defects or manufacturing errors. Today, business operations are carried out in a tightly compressed all-weather world. In the consumer market and business to business market, demand may change immediately, and new competitors with newer and more innovative products may appear overnight. Time to market is now measured in weeks rather than months or years, and any design defects, manufacturing errors or inefficiencies in product development will be quickly exposed

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